What does Artificial Intelligence mean?
According to data from Forbes, the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy in 1956 when he brought together a team of researchers in different disciplinary areas such as language simulation, neural networks, and complexity theory.
As Britannica indicates, the concept of Artificial Intelligence is usually applied "to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristics of humans," some examples are the ability to reason, constant curiosity, and the discovery and reassessment of meaning, among other features.
What does Intelligence mean?
The definition of intelligence, according to Oxford data, is "the ability to learn, understand and think logically about things, and the ability to do this well."
The dictionary defines it as "the capacity for learning, reasoning, comprehension, and similar forms of mental activity, and the ability to grasp the truth, relate facts, and understand meaning."
At first glance, it might seem like an acquired capacity, learned through human interactions, language, and the transmission of knowledge. But on the other hand, we must also point out the importance of the cognitive characteristics of the human brain. This leaves scientists creating machines in a bind, as they must simulate the thought process.
Where does Artificial Intelligence come from?
1950 - 1970
The early stage of AI was focused on developing neural networks, which are mathematical models inspired by the structure and function of the human brain. Researchers started exploring the idea of creating machines that could think and make decisions like humans, which led to the development of neural networks.
1980 - 2010
Machine learning: In this stage, the focus shifted from neural networks to machine learning, which is a type of AI that enables computers to learn and improve their performance based on data. Machine learning algorithms use statistical techniques to identify patterns in data and make predictions or decisions based on that data.
2020 - 2023
Deep learning. This is the latest stage in the evolution of AI where the focus is on developing deep learning algorithms, which are a type of machine learning that uses neural networks with multiple layers. The goal of deep learning is to create AI systems that have a higher level of awareness and the ability to respond to complex situations without being explicitly programmed to do so.
So far, we have seen some definitions of intelligence, and simply the functionality of the mind under some concepts of reasoning, which leads us to conclude that intelligence is a human trait until we consider language and learning, which science has been able to replicate through codes and software.
The evolution of artificial intelligence (AI) can be divided into three stages according to data from SAS. These stages are as follows:
A 2020 publication by the National Center for Biotechnology Information for the journal Dialogues Clin Neurosci defines intelligence as "a general mental capacity to reason, solve problems, and learn. Due to its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning..."
The article highlights widespread individual differences in the ability to reason, problem-solve, and learn, "leading to differences among humans in their overall ability to cope with challenging situations."
The evolution of the study of thought, intelligence, and the functioning of the mind has been supported by neuroscience and neuropsychology.
In the article "Areas of Research in Neurosciences" from New York University Grossman School of Medicine, it is stated that there are approximately 90 billion neurons in the human brain. Each neuron is connected to many others, and its function is like a network to react to information from the outside world.
On the other hand, neuropsychology is another pillar of the study of the mind. In his article "Neuropsychology: Theoretical Basis," Giovanni Berlucchi defines neuropsychology as the study of the relationships between the brain, on the one hand, and the mind and behavior control, on the other.
The pioneers of Artificial Intelligence: Alan Turing and John McCarthy
Alan Turing, a mathematician, logician, theoretical computer scientist, cryptographer, philosopher, and British theoretical biologist, is widely considered one of the fathers of computer science and a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). During World War II, Turing designed the bombe machine which helped speed up the decoding of messages.
In 1950, Turing wrote a paper entitled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," in which he speculated on the concept of "thinking machines" and proposed the idea of the Turing Test, a measure of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior that is indistinguishable from that of a human. This paper is considered one of the first discussions of AI and remains an important reference in the field today.
American mathematician, scientist, and computer scientist John McCarthy followed Turing's work and is credited with coining the term "artificial intelligence". McCarthy recognized that the key to AI was automation, which enables machines to solve problems and provide answers automatically without human intervention. He developed the Lisp computer language in 1958, which later became the standard programming language for AI.
At the time, the high cost of computing and the lack of mechanisms to store commands made it difficult to pursue AI research. In the early 1950s, the cost of renting a computer was $200.00 per month, and only large technology companies and prestigious universities had access to the machines.
Years later, Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon created a program called The Logic Theorist, funded by the RAND Corporation, to imitate the problem-solving abilities of a human being. The program was presented at the Dartmouth Summer Research project on AI in 1956 by John McCarthy, who brought together the best researchers in the field, but his goal of reaching an agreement on standard methods for AI was not achieved.
The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence in Literature and Hollywood
For decades, literature, TV, cinema, and radio have convinced us of simplistic theories about the growth of the mind and artificial intelligence.
Based on the premise of protecting humanity, androids or other forms of artificial intelligence decide to exterminate the very humanity that created them, or in less extreme cases, take away human freedom.
It may sound fatalistic in science fiction, but if we review history, we can understand the extent to which humanity has sought "peace and freedom."
Below, we present Hollywood cinema's portrayal of technological advancement over time, aided by literature and science fiction.
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They can be easily accessed through a digital banking app, and users do not need to carry a physical card with them. Additionally, digital cards may offer enhanced security features, such as the ability to lock or disable the card if it is lost or stolen.
The day the earth stood still (1951)
Did you know: By calling the number *99#, mobile transactions can be carried out without an app and internet connection.
2001: Space Odyssey (1968)
AEPS is a digital payment system that allows users to conduct financial transactions using their Aadhaar number (a unique identification number issued by the Government of India to every individual resident of India) and biometric data.